- Even though current levels are low,Afghanistan is a potentially high-risk country for the spread of HIV/AIDS. Drug abuse is prevalent; most users inject drugs through shared needles but are unaware of the dangers. There is no systematic testing for HIV before blood transfusion and less than 30% of transfused blood is screened. Low use stems from a lack of awareness of contraceptives. Nearly three-fourth of married women under-50 years of age have never heard of any contraceptive methods.
- Malaria is endemic in elevations below 1500 metres and is prevalent in more than 60% of the country, with over 13 million people at risk. In 2004, the annual incidence of malaria was around 2-3 million.
- All age groups are equally affected, except in the eastern region where those under 15 years of age are more affected. In most parts of the country, the transmission season is April to November. There is some evidence that malaria incidence is on the increase.
- The total caseload of Tuberculosis (TB) is estimated at 333 active cases and 91 fatalities per 100,000 population per year. Young adult women appear to be a highly vulnerable group, and account for 70% of all adult cases of morbidity and mortality of TB reported by public health facilities.
Factors that contribute to the high prevalence of malaria and TB include:
- Population movements,
- Lack of health infrastructure,
- Poor access to health care,
- Use of poor quality and counterfeit medicines,
- Lack of adherence to treatment regimes,
- Malnourishment, and
- Increasing resistance of vectors to chloroquinine, the most widely used anti-malarial drug.
AFGHANISTAN'S REVISED MDG TARGETS AND INDICATORS
Have halted by 2020 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
- HIV prevalence among blood donors
- Proportion of blood samples screened for HIV/AIDS and STDs
- Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate
- Contraceptive prevalence rate
- % of population aged 15-49 with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS
- Proportion of women's unmet needs for family planning met
- Proportion of IV drug users in treatment by 2015
Have halted by 2020 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
- Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria
- Proportion of population in malaria risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures
- Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis
- Proportion of TB cases detected and cured under DOTS